Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe

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Admiral of the Fleet Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe, seen as a Rear-Admiral.
Photo: Library of Congress.

Admiral of the Fleet THE HONOURABLE SIR Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, G.C.B.G.C.M.G.C.B.C.V.O., R.N. (23 December, 1864 – 27 July, 1937) was an officer of the Royal Navy.

Early Life & Career

The Honourable Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, the younger son of Somerset Frederick, seventh Lord Calthorpe, by his wife, Eliza Maria, only child of Captain Frederick Chamier, R.N., and widow of Captain Frederick Crewe, was born in London 23 December 1864.

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant with seniority of 19 March, 1886.

Commander

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Commander on 1 January, 1896,[1] for services on the West and East Coasts of Africa.[2] On 5 March, 1896, he was appointed as Commander of the Imperieuse, flagship of the Pacific Station. He remained in her until she paid off on 31 August, 1899.[3]

On 3 January, 1900, he was appointed to Vernon for revision of the Torpedo Manual, and on 15 September was appointed in command of the gunboat Halcyon in the Mediterranean. Halcyon paid off on 7 May, 1901. He was appointed in command of the third class protected cruiser Pandora for the manœuvres on 16 July, and on 30 September was appointed to the Royal Naval College at Greenwich for study.[4]

Captain

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Captain on 1 January, 1902.[5] From that date he was reappointed to the Royal Naval College. On 1 March he was appointed Naval Attaché at Saint Petersburg and Rome.[6]

On 1 November, 1905, he was appointed in command of the new armoured cruiser Roxburgh.[7] He was appointed a Member of the Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order dated 25 September, 1906.[8]

He was superseded in command of Roxburgh on 19 December, 1907, and appointed in command of the battleship Hindustan in the Channel Fleet on 10 January, 1908. He remained in command until 16 December, 1909.[9]

Gough-Calthorpe was appointed to Dreadnought as Captain of the Fleet of the Home Fleet and Commodore, First Class on 16 December, 1909.[10]

He was promoted Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (C.V.O.) dated 29 July, 1910.[11]

Flag Rank

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral on 27 August, 1911, vice Simons.[12]

He was appointed an Ordinary Member of the Third Class, or Companion, in the Civil Division of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (C.B.) on 21 September, 1912.[13] He was invested with the insignia of the order by the King in an investiture at Buckingham Palace on 10 October.[14]

Great War

Gough-Calthorpe had succeeded Charles Madden in command of the Second Cruiser Squadron on 29 July, 1914.[15] On 11 March, 1915, he was appointed Acting Vice-Admiral as senior cruiser admiral in the Grand Fleet.

On 1 January, 1916, he was knighted and appointed an Additional Member of the Second Class, or Knight Commander, in the Military Division of the Order of the Bath (K.C.B.).[16]

He was appointed to President for duty at the admiralty on 1 June, 1916, (and therefore missed the Battle of Jutland) and on 1 July became a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty and Second Sea Lord, with the rank of Acting Vice-Admiral.[17]

On 26 April, 1917, Gough-Calthorpe was confirmed in the rank of Vice-Admiral.[18] On 8 August, 1917, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean, and assumed command on 26 August.[19]

On 22 October, 1918 Calthorpe was empowered by the Admiralty to conclude an armistice with Turkey, acting as sole negotiator on behalf of all the Allies as High Commissioner of H. M. Government at Constantinople. He completed this assignment on 26 August, 1919.[20]

Post-War

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Admiral on 31 July, 1919, in place of Sir Henry Jackson, promoted to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet.[21]

Gough-Calthorpe was promoted to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet on 8 May, 1925.[22] He was placed on the Retired List on 8 May, 1930.[23]

The events of the 1905 Russian Revolution affected both Gough-Calthorpe and his wife deeply and the aftermath stayed with her for many years afterwards. "The great tragedy of his life," his Secretary later recalled.[24] He died at Ryde on 27 July, 1937.

A portrait of Gough-Calthorpe by Philip Connard, painted on board the Superb in 1919, is in the collection of the Imperial War Museum.

See Also

Bibliography

  • "Sir Somerset Gough Calthorpe" (Obituaries). The Times. Wednesday, 28 July, 1934. Issue 47748, col B, p. 16.

Images

  • 1918 Philip Connard portrait in the possession of the Imperial War Museum, Catalogue Number IWM ART 2494.

Service Records


Naval Appointments
Preceded by
Charles E. Madden
Captain of H.M. T.B. 72
4 Jul, 1888[25] – 30 Aug, 1888[26]
Succeeded by
Francis J. Foley
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M. T.B. 78
18 Jul, 1889[27] – 7 Sep, 1889[28]
Succeeded by
Henry H. Campbell
Preceded by
Scott W. A. H. Gray
Captain of H.M.S. Halcyon
15 Sep, 1900[29] – 7 May, 1901[30]
Succeeded by
Edward F. B. Charlton
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Pandora
16 Jul, 1901[31] – 1901
Succeeded by
John F. Murray-Aynsley
Preceded by
?
Royal Navy Naval Attaché at St. Petersburg & Rome
19 Mar, 1902[32] – 1 Nov, 1905[33]
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Edward P. Ashe
Captain of H.M.S. Roxburgh
1 Nov, 1905[34] – 19 Dec, 1907[35]
Succeeded by
Morgan Singer
Preceded by
The Hon. Alexander E. Bethell
Captain of H.M.S. Hindustan
10 Jan, 1908[36][37] – 16 Dec, 1909[38]
Succeeded by
Henry H. Campbell
Preceded by
A. Gordon H. W. Moore
as Captain of the Fleet, Home Fleet
Captain of the Fleet
16 Dec, 1909[39] – 25 Mar, 1911[40]
Succeeded by
William O. Boothby
as Captain of the Fleet, Home Fleets
Preceded by
Charles E. Madden
Rear-Admiral in the First Battle Squadron
10 Dec, 1912[41][42] – 10 Dec, 1913[43]
Succeeded by
Hugh Evan-Thomas
Preceded by
Charles E. Madden
as Rear-Admiral Commanding, Second Cruiser Squadron
Vice-Admiral Commanding, Second Cruiser Squadron
29 Jul, 1914[44] – 1 Jun, 1916[45]
Succeeded by
Herbert L. Heath
as Rear-Admiral Commanding, Second Cruiser Squadron
Preceded by
Sir Frederick T. Hamilton
Second Sea Lord
30 Jun, 1916[46] – 4 Dec, 1916[47]
Succeeded by
Sir Cecil Burney
Preceded by
The Hon. Sir Alexander E. Bethell
Admiral Commanding Coastguard and Reserves
5 Dec, 1916[48][49] – 8 Aug, 1917[50]
Succeeded by
Sir Cecil F. Thursby
Preceded by
Allied Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean
Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station
8 Aug, 1917[51]
Succeeded by
Sir John M. de Robeck, Bart.
Preceded by
Sir Cecil Burney, Bart.
Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth Station
28 Apr, 1920[52][53] – 28 Apr, 1923[54]
Succeeded by
Sir Sydney R. Fremantle
Court Appointments
Preceded by
Sir Charles E. Madden, Bart.
First and Principal Naval Aide-de-Camp
31 Jul, 1924[55] – 8 May, 1925[56]
Succeeded by
Sir Montague E. Browning

Footnotes

  1. The London Gazette: no. 26694. p. 7532. 31 December, 1895.
  2. The London Gazette: no. 26696. p. 4. 3 January, 1896.
  3. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  4. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  5. The London Gazette: no. 27393. p. 3. 3 January, 1902.
  6. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  7. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  8. The London Gazette: no. 27960. p. 7108. 23 October, 1906.
  9. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  10. ADM 196/42. f. 264.
  11. The London Gazette: no. 28403. p. 5581. 2 August, 1910.
  12. The London Gazette: no. 28526. p. 6373. 29 August, 1911.
  13. The London Gazette: no. 28648. p. 7107. 27 September, 1912.
  14. "Court Circular" (Court and Social). The Times. Friday, 11 October, 1912. Issue 40027, col A, p. 9.
  15. Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918. f. 13.
  16. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29423. p. 80. 31 December, 1915.
  17. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  18. The London Gazette: no. 30037. p. 3955. 27 April, 1917.
  19. Supplement to the Monthly Navy List. (June, 1918). p. 7.
  20. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  21. The London Gazette: no. 31489. p. 9961. 5 August, 1919.
  22. The London Gazette: no. 33049. p. 3445. 22 May, 1925.
  23. The London Gazette: no. 33604. p. 2867. 9 May, 1930.
  24. Recollection of Hubert Lynes, Gough-Calthorpe's Secretary in the Eastern Mediterranean. RNMN/LYNES. Liddle Collection, University of Leeds.
  25. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  26. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  27. This record appears less clear than that for Campbell, noted in command at same time. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  28. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  29. The Navy List. (March, 1901). p. 261.
  30. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/20. f. 272/548.
  31. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  32. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  33. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  34. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  35. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  36. The Navy List. (October, 1908). p. 327.
  37. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  38. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  39. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  40. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  41. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 11 December, 1912. Issue 40079, col C, p. 14.
  42. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  43. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  44. Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918. f. 13.
  45. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  46. The Naval Staff of the Admiralty. p. 125.
  47. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  48. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  49. The Navy List. (January, 1917). p. 423.
  50. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 130/264.
  51. Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918. p. 32.
  52. "Naval and Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 28 April, 1920. Issue 42396, col G, p. 6.
  53. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 203.
  54. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 203.
  55. The London Gazette: no. 32962. p. 5889. 5 August, 1924.
  56. Gough-Calthorpe Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 203.