Roger John Brownlow Keyes, First Baron Keyes

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Admiral of the Fleet THE RIGHT HONOURABLE Roger John Brownlow Keyes, First Baron Keyes, G.C.B., K.C.V.O., C.M.G., D.S.O., Royal Navy (4 October, 1872 – 26 December, 1945) was an officer of the Royal Navy during the Great War and the Second World War. He is chiefly remembered for his organisation of the Zeebrugge and Ostend Raids in 1918, and for his service as Chief of Combined Operations in 1940–1941.

Early Life & Career

Keyes was confirmed in the rank of Sub-Lieutenant dated 14 November, 1891.[1] He was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 28 August, 1893.[2]

For his service in China he was promoted to the rank of Commander on 9 November, 1900.[3]

Captain

Keyes was promoted to the rank of Captain on 30 June, 1905.[4]

On the occasion of the King's visit to Athens Keyes was appointed a Member of the Fourth Class of the Royal Victorian Order (M.V.O.) on 24 April, 1906.[5]

In November 1910, he assumed command of the second class protected cruiser Arrogant.[6]

On the occasion of King George V's coronation he was appointed an Additional Member of the Third Class, or Companion, in the Military Division of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (C.B.) on 19 June, 1911.[7]

Keyes was appointed in command of the composite screw sloop Dolphin as Commodore, Second Class on 31 August, 1912, remaining with her until February, 1915.[8]

Great War

Keyes was appointed a Naval Aide-de-Camp to King George V on 15 September, 1914.[9]

He was appointed an Additional Member of the Third Class, or Companion, of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George (C.M.G.) on 1 January, 1916.[10]

He was appointed a Companion of the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) on 3 June.[11]

He was appointed in command of the battleship Centurion on 21 June, 1916.[12]

He was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral on 10 April, 1917, vice Thursby.[13]

He was appointed a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (C.V.O.) on 30 March, 1918.[14]

For the Zeebrugge and Ostend operations Keyes was appointed an Additional Member of the Second Class, or Knight Commander, of the Military Division of the Order of the Bath (K.C.B.) on 24 April.[15]

Inter-War

On the occasion of the King's visit to the Army in the Field Keyes was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (K.C.V.O.) on 10 December, 1918.[16]

On 21 March, 1919 he was appointed Vice-Admiral Commanding the Battle Cruiser Squadron, assuming command the same day, and relieving Henry Oliver, who went off to command the Second Battle Squadron.[17][18] On 29 December he received the dignity of a Baronet of the United Kingdom, of Zeebrugge and Dover in the County of Kent.[19]

Keyes was promoted to the rank of Vice-Admiral on 16 May, 1921, vice Tudor.[20]

On 1 March, 1926, he was confirmed in the rank of Admiral.[21]

He was promoted to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet on 8 May, 1930, vice Gough-Calthorpe.[22] In the King's Birthday Honours of 3 June of that year, Keyes was appointed an Ordinary Member of the First Class, or Knight Grand Cross, in the Military Division of the Order of the Bath (G.C.B.).[23]

He was placed on the Retired List on 8 May, 1935.[24]

Second World War

As the result of the King approving that Admirals of the Fleet should in future be borne on the Active List of the Royal Navy for life, on 4 March, 1940, Keyes was replaced on the Active List with seniority of 8 May, 1930.[25]

On 23 January, 1943, Keyes was raised to the peerage of the United Kingdom, and created Baron Keyes, of Zebrugge and of Dover in the County of Kent.[26]

Bibliography

  • "Admiral of the Fleet Lord Keyes" (Obituaries). The Times. Thursday, 27 December, 1945. Issue 50334, col D, p. 7.
  • Aspinall-Oglander, Cecil (1951). Roger Keyes: Being the Life of Admiral of the Fleet Lord Keyes of Zeebrugge and Dover. London: The Hogarth Press.
  • Keyes, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger (1934). The Naval Memoirs of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes: The Narrow Seas to the Dardanelles, 1910—1915. London: Thornton Butterworth, Ltd.
  • Keyes, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger (1939). Adventures Ashore & Afloat. London: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.

Papers

Image

  • 1918 Glyn Philpot portrait in the possession of the Imperial War Museum. Catalogue Number ART 1324.

Service Records

Naval Appointments
Preceded by
William G. E. Ruck-Keene
Captain of H.M.S. Opossum
1 Jan, 1898[27] – 15 Sep, 1898[28]
Succeeded by
Louis C. S. Woollcombe
Preceded by
Hastings F. Shakespear
Captain of H.M.S. Hart
15 Sep, 1898[29][30] – Jan, 1899[31]
Succeeded by
James U. Farie
Preceded by
Charles Tibbits
Captain of H.M.S. Fame
7 Jan, 1899[32] – 14 Nov, 1900[33]
Succeeded by
Charles P. Mansel
Preceded by
Arthur P. James
Captain of H.M.S. Bat
1 May, 1901[34] – 5 Jan, 1902[35]
Succeeded by
James U. Farie
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Falcon
5 Jan, 1902[36] – 13 May, 1902[37]
Succeeded by
William G. E. Ruck-Keene
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Sprightly
13 May, 1902[38] – 8 Jan, 1903[39]
Succeeded by
Reginald Yorke Tyrwhitt
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Express
8 Jan, 1903[40] – 8 Apr, 1903[41]
Succeeded by
Hugh P. Buckle
Preceded by
William G. E. Ruck-Keene
Captain of H.M.S. Gipsy
8 Apr, 1903[42] – 1 May, 1903[43]
Succeeded by
Sydney S. Hall
Preceded by
?
Royal Navy Naval Attaché at Rome
1 Jan, 1905[44] – 1 Jan, 1908[45]
Succeeded by
Adolphus H. Williamson
Preceded by
Cuthbert G. Chapman
Captain of H.M.S. Venus
18 Aug, 1908[46] – 11 Oct, 1910[47]
Succeeded by
Robert E. R. Benson
Preceded by
Sydney S. Hall
Captain of H.M.S. Mercury
14 Nov, 1910[48]
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Sydney S. Hall
Inspecting Captain of Submarines
14 Nov, 1910[49]
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
E. Percy F. G. Grant
Captain of H.M.S. Arrogant
1 Jul, 1911[50]
Succeeded by
Alexander R. Palmer
Preceded by
William M. Kerr
Captain of H.M.S. Centurion
21 Jun, 1916[51][52] – 16 Jun, 1917[53]
Succeeded by
Douglas L. Dent
Preceded by
Ernest F. A. Gaunt
Rear-Admiral in the Fourth Battle Squadron
23 Jun, 1917[54] – 25 Sep, 1917[55]
Succeeded by
Douglas R. L. Nicholson
Preceded by
New Position
Director of Plans
28 Sep, 1917[56] – 1 Jan, 1918[57]
Succeeded by
Cyril T. M. Fuller
Preceded by
Sir Reginald H. S. Bacon
Vice-Admiral, Dover Patrol
1 Jan, 1918[58][59] – 20 Mar, 1919[60]
Succeeded by
Cecil F. Dampier
Preceded by
Sir Henry F. Oliver
Vice-Admiral Commanding Battle Cruiser Force
21 Mar, 1919[61][62] – 7 Apr, 1919[63][64]
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Rear-Admiral Commanding Battle Cruiser Squadron
8 Apr, 1919[65] – 31 Mar, 1921[66]
Succeeded by
Sir Walter H. Cowan, Bart.
Preceded by
Sir Osmond de B. Brock
Deputy Chief of Naval Staff
1 Nov, 1921[67] – 15 May, 1925[68]
Succeeded by
Sir Frederick L. Field
Preceded by
Sir Osmond de B. Brock
Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station
8 Jun, 1925[69][70] – 1 May, 1928[71]
Succeeded by
Sir Frederick L. Field
Preceded by
Sir Osmond de B. Brock
Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth Station
29 Apr, 1929[72][73] – 9 Jun, 1931[74]
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur K. Waistell

Footnotes

  1. The London Gazette: no. 26366. p. 412. 24 January, 1893.
  2. The London Gazette: no. 26444. p. 5433. 26 September, 1893.
  3. The London Gazette: no. 27245. p. 6855. 9 November, 1900.
  4. The London Gazette: no. 27812. p. 4557. 30 June, 1905.
  5. The London Gazette: no. 27911. p. 3164. 8 May, 1906.
  6. Mackie, Colin. ROYAL NAVY WARSHIPS.
  7. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28505. p. 4588. 19 June, 1911.
  8. The Navy List. (January, 1915). p. 304.
  9. The London Gazette: no. 28906. p. 7396. 18 September, 1914.
  10. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29423. p. 83. 1 January, 1916.
  11. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29608. p. 5563. 3 June, 1916.
  12. The Navy List. (December, 1916). p. 393.
  13. The London Gazette: no. 30017. p. 3496. 13 April, 1917.
  14. The London Gazette: no. 30613. p. 4132. 5 April, 1918.
  15. The London Gazette: no. 30655. p. 5064. 26 April, 1918.
  16. The London Gazette: no. 31071. p. 14815. 17 December, 1918.
  17. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 319.
  18. Supplement to the Monthly Navy List. (July, 1919). p. 5.
  19. The London Gazette: no. 31708. p. 15988. 30 December, 1919.
  20. The London Gazette: no. 32329. p. 4004. 20 May, 1921.
  21. The London Gazette: no. 33139. p. 1650. 5 March, 1926.
  22. The London Gazette: no. 33604. p. 2867. 9 May, 1930.
  23. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 33611. p. 3474. 3 June, 1930.
  24. The London Gazette: no. 34159. p. 3048. 10 May, 1935.
  25. The London Gazette: no. 34807. p. 1394. 8 March, 1940.
  26. The London Gazette: no. 35874. p. 445. 22 January, 1943.
  27. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  28. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  29. The Navy List. (October, 1898). p. 255.
  30. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  31. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/88. f. 90.
  32. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  33. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  34. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  35. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  36. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  37. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  38. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  39. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  40. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  41. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  42. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  43. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  44. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  45. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  46. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  47. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  48. The Navy List. (April, 1911). p. 344.
  49. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  50. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  51. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  52. The Navy List. (December, 1916). p. 393.
  53. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  54. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  55. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 277.
  56. Keyes. Naval Memoirs. II. p. 113.
  57. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  58. Supplement to the Monthly Navy List. (November, 1918). p. 3.
  59. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  60. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  61. Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918. f. 8.
  62. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  63. Squadrons and Senior Naval Officers in Existence on 11th November, 1918. f. 8.
  64. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  65. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  66. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  67. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  68. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  69. "Naval and Military" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 8 June, 1925. Issue 43982, col F, p. 24.
  70. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  71. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  72. "Naval, Military, and Air Force" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 29 April, 1929. Issue 45189, col E, p. 21.
  73. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.
  74. Keyes Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 291.