In gunnery, Pointing Errors are deviations between the alignment of the sighting mark (typically, the crosshairs within a telescope or a rifle-type peep sight at the gun or a gun director) and the intended point of aim.
As anyone will appreciate, pointing errors can become significant elements of error in fire control.
Sensitivity to Range
As gun ranges reach the limits of a gun system, the range obtained by a shot becomes increasingly insensitive to changes in elevation. That is, a gun that reaches 1,000 yards at .2 degree elevation might reach 2,000 yards at .5 degrees of elevation. The same gun, however, might each 16,000 yards at 13 degrees elevation and just 16,500 at 15 degrees elevation. This means that a given pointing error in elevation is more profound in its effect on range at shorter ranges. Conversely, the flatness of trajectories at shorter ranges also means that a wide error in range might still produce a hit on the target, due to the increased Danger Space.