Louis Alexander Mountbatten, First Marquess of Milford Haven

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Admiral of the Fleet the Marquess of Milford Haven, as an Admiral.
Photograph: © National Portrait Gallery, London.

Admiral of the Fleet THE MOST HONOURABLE Louis Alexander Mountbatten, First Marquess of Milford Haven (formerly His Serene Highness Prince Louis of Battenberg), G.C.B., G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G., P.C. (24 May, 1854 – 11 September, 1921) was an officer of the Royal Navy.

Life & Career

Milford Haven was born His Illustrious Highness Count Ludwig Alexander von Battenberg in Gratz (now Graz), Austria, on 24 May, 1854, the eldest son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine through his morganatic marriage to Countess Julia von Hauke. On 28 December, 1858, when his mother became a princess, he became His Serene Highness Prince Ludwig von Battenberg.

Battenberg expressed his desire to join the Royal Navy, and was sent to Burney's Royal Academy at Southsea, a crammer, to prepare for the entrance examination to the Navy. A minute of the Board of Admiralty of 3 August records that Battenberg was to be examined in December even though he was over the age laid down in the regulations. He was naturalised and became a British subject on 30 September, 1868, under the provisions of the Aliens Act, 1844, (7 & 8 Vict. c. 66.).[1] On 3 October he was entered on the books of the Victory at Portsmouth as a Naval Cadet.

On 15 December Captain Hood reported:

The knowledge of Prince Louis in the French language is very satisfactory, as also in "Modern Geography," Arithmetic, "Algebra," to Equations, "Euclid," Definitions and axioms of the First Book and "Trigonometry," as far as specified in your letter. His knowledge of "Elementary Navigation" is also satisfactory. So far therefore as his attainments in the aforementioned subjects are concerned, I beg to report that His Highness, Prince Louis, is considered qualified for a Naval Cadetship.[2]

Queen Victoria telegraphed Prince Leiningen on 29 December approving Battenberg's appointment to the Ariadne. On 30 December Admiral Dacres, now First Naval Lord, instructed Prince Louis to join Ariadne at Trieste on 20 January, with his leave extended until then. The "Battenberg Question," as Leiningen referred to it in a letter to Dacres, was finally settled.

Midshipman Battenberg was appointed to the Royal Alfred on 30 October, 1869.[3]

Following the Prince of Wales's tour to India, Battenberg was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant with seniority of 15 May, 1876.[4]

Along with William May and Percy Scott, Battenberg was appointed to the steam frigate Inconstant, on 24 August, 1880. Two weeks later Inconstant became flagship of a Detached Squadron for Particular Service under Rear-Admiral Earl Clanwilliam.[5][6]

He was appointed an Ordinary Member of the Second Class, or Knight Commander, in the Civil Division of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (K.C.B.) on 29 April, 1884.[7]

He was promoted to the rank of Commander on 30 August, 1885.

Battenberg was appointed an Additional Member of the Civil Division of the First Class, or Knight Grand Cross, of the Order of the Bath (G.C.B.) on 21 June, 1887.[8]

Captain

Battenberg was promoted to the rank of Captain on 31 December, 1891.[9] In the coming year, he would invent the clever and versatile navigational aid, the Battenberg Course Indicator.[10]

He left Scout on 10 February and went on Half Pay. He was appointed in command of the second class protected cruiser Andromache in the annual manœuvres from 21 July to 10 September before returning to Half Pay. On 23 November he was appointed Naval Adviser to the Inspector-General of Fortifications, which position he held until 15 October, 1894.[11]

He was appointed in command of the cruiser Cambrian on the Mediterranean Station on 16 October, 1894, and was superseded in her on 8 April, 1897.[12]

On 1 January, 1897, Battenberg was appointed an Honorary Naval Aide-de-Camp to Queen Victoria.[13] He was appointed in command of the battleship Majestic in the Channel Squadron on 7 June, 1897.[14]

On 28 June, 1899 Battenberg handed command of the Majestic over to Captain George Le C. Egerton.[15] On the same day he was appointed an Assistant Director of Naval Intelligence (A.D.N.I.) in the Naval Intelligence Department (N.I.D.) at the Admiralty.

He was appointed a Personal Naval Aide-de-Camp to King Edward VII on 25 February, 1901.[16] He was superseded as A.D.N.I. on 6 May. The Board of Admiralty put on record its "high appreciation of the zealous & able manner in which he carried out the duties in connection with the Mobn [Mobilisation] Section of the N.I.D."

On 10 September, Battenberg commissioned the battleship Implacable at Devonport for service in the Mediterranean.[17] During the illness and subsequent death of the Second-in-Command of the fleet, Rear-Admiral Burges Watson, Battenberg was appointed Commodore, Second Class on 24 September, 1902 until a successor arrived.[18] The Captain of H.M.S. Juno, David Beatty, wrote to his wife:

Our Admiral has gone sick and so we have been placed under the command of Prince Louis of Battenberg who is one of the Captains out here, in fact the senior one and supposed to be the most capable man. He is awfully nice, but frightfully pompous and heavy in hand, but I think otherwise he is alright.[19]

Battenberg was superseded in command of Implacable on 29 October, and on the same day was appointed to H.M.S. President while he made his way home from the Mediterranean. On 15 November he was appointed Director of Naval Intelligence (D.N.I.).[20]

Director of Naval Intelligence

Battenberg returned to the Admiralty in 1902 as Director of Naval Intelligence. He was appointed Director only after the sudden death of the successor designate, Rear-Admiral Burges Watson, and the disqualification of the alternative, Captain Henry May.[21] He succeeded Rear-Admiral Custance on 15 November, 1902.[22]

On 11 October, 1903, Battenberg wrote to Cyprian Bridge, the Commander-in-Chief on the China Station, "My work seems to grow steadily — the D.N.I. is requisitioned by every department, even outside the Admiralty & not much of my waking life is devoted to other matters."[23]

Referring to a naval staff, Battenberg wrote, "The machinery, in the shape of the (miscalled) Intelligence Department, is there; it requires enlarging and strengthening and above all it requires someone at its head of sufficient power and influence."[24]

Battenberg was not always as perspicacious as he would have liked to be. On 4 February, 1904, Captain (later Admiral Sir) George F. King-Hall noted: "Battenberg assured me that there would be no war between Russia and Japan."[25] Suffice it to say, four days later the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur.

On 30 May Battenberg was unanimously elected an Elder Brother of the Corporation of Trinity House.[26] In June he was appointed Chairman of the Council of the Royal United Services Institution in succession to General Lord Methuen.[27]

On 1 July Battenberg was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral.[28]

Rear-Admiral

Battenberg joined King Edward at Marienbad in August, 1904, where the sovereign was taking the cure. The King sent Prince Louis, as his Personal Aide-de-Camp[29] to be present as his representative at the christening of the Tsar's son on 24 August, 1894 in the Peterhof Palace.[30] On the 26th, he and Prince Henry of Prussia of the Imperial German Navy lunched with Grand Duke Vladimir, before being seen off on their respective journeys home at the train station by the Tsar, all the Grand Dukes and the Ambassadors of Germany and Britain.[31] During his visit to Russia, Battenberg had been ordered, in his own words:

1. To present a letter to the Emperor which combined a request to give me an opportunity of speaking with His Majesty on the relations between the two countries. 2. To arrange for a meeting with Count Lamsdorff [Minister for Foreign Affairs] to whom I was to give a personal message from the King to the effect that His Majesty felt every confidence in the Count's sincere desire to help restoring the friendly relations between England and Russia.[32]

As D.N.I., Fisher and Battenberg evidently did not get on well. In 1909 he wrote to an unknown correspondent, "J.F. [John Fisher] has always claimed that the First Sea Lord is the Chief of the Staff and that the D.N.I. is his head Clerk. That was one if not the principal reason, why I was sent to sea so soon after J.F.'s advent."[33] On 2 January, 1905, he was appointed away from the Admiralty, with Their Lordships' thanks, as Rear-Admiral Commanding the Second Cruiser Squadron.[34]

On 24 February, 1907, he was appointed to succeed Vice-Admiral Francis C. B. Bridgeman as Second-in-Command in the Mediterranean, with the Acting Rank of Vice-Admiral. From 23 February to 27 March he held temporary command of the Mediterranean Fleet.[35]In a letter to Tweedmouth Battenberg referred to:

The fact of your giving me a Vice Adls' appointment is the very best reply to my detractors."[36]

This clearly wasn't so, as Vice-Admiral Hedworth Lambton, who had been offered the position of second-in-command in the Mediterranean the year before, made clear to Tweedmouth:

I realise that that Princes even if only "Made in Germany" must be provided.[37]

Battenberg was confirmed in the rank of Vice-Admiral on 30 June, 1908, vice Henderson.[38]

On the occasion of the King's birthday Battenberg was appointed an Ordinary Member of the Second Class, or Knight Commander, in the Military Division of the Order of the Bath (K.C.B.) on 25 June, 1909.[39]

Second Sea Lord

The First Sea Lord, Sir Francis Bridgeman, later conceded in a letter of 13 November, 1914, that Battenberg used "well chosen language" and could "write voluminously", but damned his understanding as "superficial" and believed him "utterly deficient in technical knowledge."[40]

Battenberg's Flag Captain during the 1912 manœuvres, Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet Sir) Henry F. Oliver, later wrote: "Prince Louis was a big man and had a big man's appetite. At breakfast he began on porridge then fish, then eggs and bacon or a meat dish, then a large plate of cold ham, then hot muffins or crumpets and then a lot of toast, butter and jam and finish on fruit. His meal would have fed an Officers['] mess."[41]

First Sea Lord

Battenberg wrote to Churchill, "I think I may truthfully say that at this moment no-one has any clear idea how the Commander-in-Chief, whereever he maybe in the line, is to effectively command such a fleet."[42]

Mr. Winston Churchill had become First lord in that year, and he selected Prince Louis as first sea lord a year later on the retirement of Sir Francis Bridgeman. This selection was probably unwise on grounds of political expediency, in view of the circumstances of Prince Louis's birth, and of the threatening situation which was developing abroad. Battenberg was confirmed in the rank of Admiral on 13 July, 1912, vice Atkinson-Willes.[43]

In July 1914 a test mobilization of the naval reserves was carried out, and the ships were due to disperse, after carrying out exercises in the English Channel, at the moment when relations between this country and Germany had become strained. Owing to the illness of his wife, Mr. Churchill was absent from the Admiralty during the critical week-end (25–27 July), so the ultimate decision rested with the First Sea Lord, who apart from his young Midshipman son, was almost totally alone at the Admiralty on the crucial Sunday, 26 July. If a comment by Herbert Richmond can be trusted—and unlike some of his more caustic utterances it seems credible—Battenberg may have been the only man to appreciate the gravity of the situation that weekend: "The Operations Division had no information to work upon on Saturday [July 25th] & knew nothing of whether the crisis was serious or not."[44]

26 July, 1914

Although the First Lord was in Cromer, he remained in telephone contact with Battenberg. Twice on the morning of 26 July he called the Admiralty for news, and Battenberg explained that the situation was deteriorating quickly. With war fast approaching it had to be decided whether the fleet should be dispersed and the reserve ships demobilized, in accordance with the plans already made, or whether preliminary steps should be taken to place the squadrons at their various war stations. During the second telephone conversation, Battenberg pressed the First Lord for a decision. Churchill's reply seems to have either left something to be desired or simply stated the obvious. According to his son's recollection many years later, the Battenberg was told by Churchill that the First Sea Lord was in charge of the Navy but that delaying the end of the Test Mobilization would have "political implications".

When it became quite clear to my father that he was not going to get any advice he realized that he had no alternative but to stand the fleet fast himself. So he went ahead and on his own authority cancelled the Demobilization Orders so as to hold the fleet in readiness for war and informed the Foreign Officer and the King of his decision.[45]

At four in the afternoon, Prince Louis sent a telegram to the C.-in-C. Home Fleets, Sir George Callaghan:

No ships of First Fleet or Flotillas are to leave Portland until further orders. Acknowledge.

Churchill later acknowledged in a letter to Battenberg of 19 October that, "The first step which secured the timely concentration of the Fleet was taken by you."[46] War had not then been declared, but the prevision of the first sea lord ensured that when it became inevitable the navy should be in a state of readiness. Political events moved rapidly. At four o'clock on the morning of 3 August the mobilization of the navy had been completed.

Resignation

On 29 October Battenberg officially submitted his resignation to Churchill:

Dear Mr Churchill
I have lately been driven to the painful conclusion that at this juncture my birth and parentage have the effect of impairing in some respects my usefulness on the Board of Admiralty. In these circumstances I feel it to be my duty as a loyal subject of his Majesty, to resign the office of First Sea Lord, hoping thereby to facilitate the task of the administration of the the great Service, to which I have devoted my life, and to ease the burden laid on H.M. Ministers.[47]

Asquith personally arranged for Battenberg to be sworn of the Privy Council, and Churchill promised that he would be given the Command-in-Chief at Portsmouth at the end of the war in succession to Sir Hedworth Meux.[48]

The Director of Naval Ordnance, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Morgan Singer, later wrote: "Prince Louis of Battenberg left the Admlty in Oct.. 14 much to everyone's relief; he had not been a success, was entirely in Churchill's hands, the latter doing exactly as he liked." The Assistant Director of Torpedoes, Captain (later Admiral) Philip W. Dumas, confided in his diary at the time: "PL has been a failure."[49] The Admiral Commanding, Orkneys and Shetlands, Admiral The Honourable Sir Stanley Colville, wrote to Hamilton, the Second Sea Lord, that, "As regards P. Louis of course all that about his being a spy is 'rot', but from all one has heard & knows it is pretty well self evident he had become a nonentity & a simple tool in W.C's hand."[50]

Retirement

On 5 November, 1914, Battenberg was sworn of His Majesty's Privy Council.[51] Through an Order in Council of 23 December, Battenberg was granted, "whilst he is on half pay during the period of the war, the special rate of half pay of two thousand pounds a year."[52]

Battenberg arranged with the Second Sea Lord, Sir Frederick T. Hamilton, that his second son Prince Louis (later Earl Mountbatten of Burma) should go to Lion when he left the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, and specifically not New Zealand, in which Prince George was serving.[53]

He was placed on the Retired List at his own request on 1 January, 1919.[54]

He was appointed an Ordinary Member of the First Class, or Knight Grand Cross, in the Military Division of the Order of the Bath (G.C.B.) on 1 January, 1921.[55] On 4 August he was specially promoted by Order in Council to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet on the Retired List, for which his past services "would have fully qualified him."[56]

On the night of 18 September Milford Haven's body was removed from the private chapel at Buckingham Palace to the Chapel Royal, St. James's. At 11:30 on the 19th the cortège formed up at Marlborough Gate, and proceeded down the Mall, through Admiralty Arch, down Whitehall to Westminster Abbey. The honorary pall bearers were Admirals of the Fleet Sir Arthur D. Fanshawe, Sir William H. May, Earl Beatty, Sir Henry B. Jackson, Sir Cecil Burney, Bart., Sir F. C. Doveton Sturdee, Bart., Admiral Sir Francis C. B. Bridgeman, and Major-General Herbert Blumberg, R.M.L.I.[57]

Bibliography

  • "Lord Milford Haven" (Obituaries). The Times. Monday, 12 September, 1921. Issue 42823, col C, p. 8.
  • 'S.'. (November, 1934). "'Prince Louis of Battenberg'". The Naval Review XXII (4): pp. 810–814.
  • Hattendorf, John B. (1995). Murfett, Malcolm H.. ed. The First Sea Lords: From Fisher to Mountbatten. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94231-7.
  • Hough, Richard (1974). Louis & Victoria: The First Mountbattens. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-121160-3.
  • Kerr, Mark (1934). Prince Louis of Battenberg: Admiral of the Fleet. London: Longmans, Green and Co..
  • Seligmann, Matthew (2008). "Prince Louis of Battenberg: The Advantages and Disadvantages of being a Serene Highness in the Royal Navy" in Urbach, Karina. Royal Kinship: Anglo-German Family Networks, 1815-1918. München: K. G. Saur Verlag. ISBN 978-3-598-23003-5.

Papers

  • Papers in the possession of Special Collections, University of Southampton.

Service Records

Naval Appointments
Preceded by
George Neville
Vice-Admiral Commanding,
Third and Fourth Divisions,
Home Fleet

24 March, 1911[58]
Succeeded by
Frederick T. Hamilton

Naval Appointments
Preceded by
Crawford J. M. Conybeare
Captain of H.M.S. Scout
3 Oct, 1889[59]
Succeeded by
Walter S. Goodridge
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Andromache
21 Jul, 1892[60] – 10 Sep, 1892[61]
Succeeded by
Archibald J. Pocklington
Preceded by
Wilmot H. Fawkes
Naval Adviser to the Inspector-General of Fortifications
23 Nov, 1892[62]
Succeeded by
George A. Callaghan
Preceded by
?
Captain of H.M.S. Cambrian
16 Oct, 1894[63] – 10 May, 1897[64]
Succeeded by
Robert A. J. Montgomerie
Preceded by
Arthur Barrow
Captain of H.M.S. Majestic
7 Jun, 1897[65][66] – 27 Jun, 1899[67]
Succeeded by
George Le C. Egerton
Preceded by
Arthur Barrow
Assistant Director of Naval Intelligence, Mobilisation Division
28 Jun, 1899[68] – 6 May, 1901[69]
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
New Command
Captain of H.M.S. Implacable
10 Sep, 1901[70] – 8 Nov, 1902[71]
Succeeded by
Reginald C. Prothero
Preceded by
Reginald N. Custance
Director of Naval Intelligence
15 Nov, 1902[72]
Succeeded by
Charles L. Ottley
Preceded by
?
Rear-Admiral Commanding, Second Cruiser Squadron
1 Feb, 1905[73]
Succeeded by
Charles H. Adair
Preceded by
Francis C. B. Bridgeman
Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Station
24 Feb, 1907[74]
Succeeded by
Sir George A. Callaghan
Preceded by
Sir Assheton G. Curzon-Howe
Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet
15 Nov, 1908[75]
Succeeded by
Sir John R. Jellicoe
as Vice-Admiral Commanding, Atlantic Fleet
Preceded by
Sir George Le C. Egerton
Second Sea Lord
5 Dec, 1911[76]
Succeeded by
Sir John R. Jellicoe
Preceded by
Sir Francis C. B. Bridgeman
First Sea Lord
9 Dec, 1912[77] – 9 Oct, 1914[78]
Succeeded by
The Rt. Hon. The Lord Fisher

Footnotes

  1. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  2. Hood to Pasley. Letter of 15 December, 1885. ADM 1/6062.
  3. The Navy List. (January, 1874). p. 175.
  4. The London Gazette: no. 24326. p. 2982. 16 May, 1876.
  5. The Navy List. (January, 1881). p. 218.
  6. The Navy List. (June, 1881). p. 218.
  7. The London Gazette: no. 25348. p. 1928. 29 April, 1884.
  8. The London Gazette: no. 25712. p. 3364. 21 June, 1887.
  9. The London Gazette: no. 26239. p. 3. 1 January, 1892.
  10. O.U. 5274 Remarks on Handling Ships
  11. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  12. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  13. The London Gazette: no. 26809. p. 3. 1 January, 1897.
  14. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  15. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 26 June, 1899. Issue 35865, col A, p. 14.
  16. The London Gazette: no. 27289. p. 1417. 26 February, 1901.
  17. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 11 September, 1901. Issue 36557, col C, p. 8.
  18. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 29 September, 1902. Issue 36885, col B, p. 8.
  19. Letter of 20 September, 1902. National Maritime Museum. BTY/17/9/88-93. Reproduced in the Beatty Papers. I. p. 11.
  20. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  21. Lambert. "Strategic Command and Control for Maneuver Warfare". The Journal of Military History. p. 364.
  22. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Saturday, 15 November, 1902. Issue 36926, col D, p. 12.
  23. Quoted in Hough. Louis and Victoria. p. 192.
  24. Cookridge. From Battenberg to Mountbatten. p. 139.
  25. King-Hall diary entry for 4 February, 1904.
  26. "Trinity House" (News). The Times. Tuesday, 31 May, 1904. Issue 37408, col A, p. 10.
  27. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Thursday, 16 June, 1904. Issue 37422, col C, p. 10.
  28. The London Gazette: no. 27692. p. 4259. 5 July, 1904.
  29. Hough. Louis and Victoria. p. 186.
  30. "Christening if the Cesarevitch" (News). The Times. Thursday, 25 August, 1904. Issue 37482, col D, p. 3.
  31. "News in Brief" (News in Brief). The Times. Saturday, 27 August, 1904. Issue 37484, col D, p. 3.
  32. Quoted in Hough. Louis and Victoria. p. 186.
  33. The National Archives. CAB 1/31. f. 79.
  34. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 15.
  35. ADM 196/38. f. 15.
  36. Letter of 26 January, 1907. Tweedmouth Papers. National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth. MSS 254/598.
  37. Letter of 10 May, 1907. Tweedmouth Papers. National Museum of the Royal Navy, Portsmouth. MSS 254/614.
  38. The London Gazette: no. 28156. p. 4940. 7 July, 1908.
  39. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28263. p. 4853. 25 June, 1909.
  40. Bridgeman to Sandars. Sandars MSS 767. Quoted in Ross. p. 180.
  41. Oliver. II. f. 81.
  42. Letter of 10 July, 1912. The National Archives. CAB 1/33. Quoted in Lambert. Sir John Fisher's Naval Revolution. p. 252.
  43. The London Gazette: no. 28627. p. 5182. 16 July, 1912.
  44. Richmond. "Points noticed with the first few days of war". n.d. [August 1914]. RIC/1/9, Richmond MSS, National Maritime Museum.
  45. Statement by Lord Louis Mountbatten in manuscript titled "Standing Fast The Fleet in 1914: The Part Played by the First Sea Lord, Admiral Prince Louis of Battenberg (later Admiral of the Fleet, the 1st Marquess of Milford Haven)". MB1/T85, Mountbatten MSS, University of Southampton.
  46. Gilbert. Winston S. Churchill. Volume III Companion Part I. p. 1.
  47. Copy in ADM 196/38. f. 16.
  48. Churchill to Battenberg. Copy of letter of 28 October, 1914. Churchill Papers. Churchill Archives Centre. CHAR 13/5/63.
  49. Diary entry for 31 October, 1914. Liddle Collection. University of Leeds. RNMN/Dumas/16a in Box 7.
  50. Colville to Hamilton. Letter of 10 November, 1914. Hamilton Papers. National Maritime Museum. HTN/117/A.
  51. The London Gazette: no. 28965. p. 9011. 6 November, 1914.
  52. The London Gazette: no. 29019. p. 11047. 25 December, 1914.
  53. Letters of 25 September, 1915, and 6 October, 1915. Hamilton Papers. National Maritime Museum. HTN/117/A.
  54. The London Gazette: no. 31104. p. 199. 3 January, 1919.
  55. The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 32178. p. 4. 1 January, 1921.
  56. Copy of Order in Council of 19 August, 1921. Enclosed in ADM 196/38. f. 47.
  57. "Funeral of Lord Milford Haven" (Deaths). The Times. Tuesday, 20 September, 1921. Issue 42830, col E, p. 13.
  58. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/86. f. 207.
  59. The Navy List. (March, 1891). p. 252.
  60. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  61. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  62. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38/100.
  63. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  64. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  65. The Navy List. (October, 1898). p. 269.
  66. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  67. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  68. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  69. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  70. "Naval & Military Intelligence" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Wednesday, 11 September, 1901. Issue 36557, col C, p. 8.
  71. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/19. f. 391.
  72. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.
  73. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 15.
  74. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 47.
  75. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/86. f. 207.
  76. The Naval Staff of the Admiralty. p. 119.
  77. The Naval Staff of the Admiralty. p. 118.
  78. Milford Haven Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/38. f. 59.