H.M.S. Tiger (1913)

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H.M.S. Tiger (1913)
Pendant Number: 42 (1914)
A4 (Jan 1918)
91 (Apr 1918)[1]
Builder: John Brown, Clydebank
(Ship no. 418)[2]
Ordered: 1911-1912 Programme[3]
Laid down: 20 Jun, 1912[4]
Launched: 15 Dec, 1913[5]
Commissioned: Oct, 1914[6]
Sold: Feb, 1932[7]
Fate: to Ward, Inverkeithing[8]

H.M.S. Tiger was the most powerful battlecruiser in the Royal Navy that fought in the Great War.

Construction and Service

Letters inviting tenders were sent to ten firms on 21 December, 1911. That of John Brown and Company of Clydebank was accepted on 4 April, 1912, and she was laid down on 20 June of that year.[9] Tiger was launched on 15 December, 1913, by Lady Helen Vincent, wide of Sir Edgar Vincent. Captain Edward S. Fitzherbert, Captain Superintendent, Contract Built Ships, Clyde District, was present on behalf of the Admiralty.[10]

Of the ship's chief commissioning officers, the first to be appointed was the Gunnery Officer, Lieutenant-Commander Evan Bruce-Gardyne, on 13 March, 1914. The Torpedo Officer, Lieutenant-Commander Walter N. Lapage, was appointed on 19 June. Captain Henry B. Pelly was appointed in command on 3 August, closely followed by Commander Henry G. Sherbrooke as Commander on the sixth and Commander Edward R. Jones as Navigating Officer on the eighth.[11] The First Lieutenant was apparently the retired Lieutenant James Bayley, appointed on the twenty-second.[12] The ship commissioned at Clydebank on 3 October,[13] and joined the Grand Fleet at Scapa on 6 November.[14] On the tenth the Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John R. Jellicoe, wrote to Lord Fisher, the First Sea Lord, objecting to the removal of a battle cruiser from his command:

I explained that Tiger is absolutely unfit to fight yet. Even if trained (which she is not), her one dynamo that is effective cannot do the work of the fire control instruments, lighting, etc., and she would be a present to the Germans.[15]

On the 13th Vice-Admiral Sir David R. Beatty, Vice-Admiral Commanding the First Battle Cruiser Squadron referred in a letter to Jellicoe to "TIGER being as yet unfit" to take the place of Princess Royal, detached.[16] Jellicoe flatly replied on the 17th that "TIGER will be with you when next at sea."[17] Beatty informed Fisher on the 15th:

You are probably not aware that Tiger is not yet fit to fight. Three out of her four dynamos are out of action for an indefinite period, and her training is impeded by bad weather, which might continue for many weeks at this time of year, and at present she is quite unprepared and inefficient.[18]

On 14 December Commander Arthur J. Davies replaced Commander Sherbroke.[19]

Dogger Bank

In the wake of Dogger Bank, Vice-Admiral Beatty mentioned to the Second Sea Lord, Sir Frederick T. Hamilton, that he told Churchill

I did say that 'Tiger' had a very mixed Ship's Company, with a large number of recovered deserters, and that it was an up hill task for the Captain to pull them together in War Time, and the same efficiency could not be expected from the 'Tiger' as from the other ships. No you have not had any complaint from me or from Pelly, it is not the time to complain but to do the best we can with the material available. I assumed her Ship's company would have been better if it had been possible make it so. If they had had time to work up together and and get to know each other as your System provides for now, there would have been a vast difference, the higher ratings are excellent and gradually making themselves felt, but it takes time.[20]

Lieutenant-Commander Patrick Macnamara succeeded Bruce-Gardyne as Gunnery Officer on 9 March, 1915.[21] Vice-Admiral Sir F. D. Doveton Sturdee, commanding the Fourth Battle Squadron, told his Rear-Admiral, Alexander L. Duff of the relief, who noted in his diary:

He also told me what I am extremely sorry to hear, viz, that Bruce Gardyne is to be taken out of Tiger on account of bad shooting both in action & in at target practice. I was afraid it might happen. I am sorry for his mother who is so proud of him being Lieut (G) of so fine a ship. Shall we gain by swapping horses while crossing the stream? I doubt it.[22]

Battle of Jutland

Main article: H.M.S. Tiger at the Battle of Jutland

Gunnery Practice

Tiger practiced at least twice in early 1918.[23]

On 25 January, 1918, she performed 13.5-in full charge long range throw-off firing assisted by an airplane.

On 22 March, she repeated the exercise with help from aircraft from Pegasus while steaming with Lion and Princess Royal ahead against a 145 foot target while steaming at full speed and turning, firing 31 of 32 permitted rounds in six minutes of firing. Her consorts' funnel smoke caused intermittent interruption in target visibility, and 4-6 Force winds from 11 o'clock caused spray interference at all positions except the top. The sea caused 5 degrees of roll and 1 degree pitching. Spotting and control was from the top. An "up 100" correction was wrongly applied as an "up 200" at 2.30. The rate was well-kept by inclination reports from G.C.T., top, and "B" and "X" turrets being meaned in the T.S.. A lack of practice caused the control officer to wait excessively for the W/T and visual reports from his spotting aircraft, but a hit was recorded at 20,000 yards on the second salvo while deflection was still being sought. Overall, however, this waiting slowed the rate of fire markedly.

Deflection was maintained throughout except when a "deflection correction calculator" had not yet applied the results of a turn at 4.40. The roll of the ship, and vibration from the 27 knot speed she was making caused all R.F.s difficulty, and spray hampered all but the R.F. in the top. Only that one, and the one in "Q" turret and the 15-foot Argo instrument got any cuts, but the top's ranges were accurate at beginning and end of the shoot. The top took 14 ranges, "Q" took 4, and I do not see the Argo's alleged contribution recorded.

Funnel smoke caused issues with taking in visual signals from aircraft, but it seemed that often these could be taken in from an alternative position on own ship. Ranges had varied from 20,100 yards at open fire to 19,500 yards at cease fire.

Post-War

Tiger commissioned on 3 October, 1919 under the command of William Boyle.[24]

She completed to Special Complement at Portsmouth on 15 February, 1924.[25]

Under the terms of the London Naval Treaty of 1930, Tiger was one of five capital ships to be removed from the effective list.[26] Before paying off she participated in the Spring Cruise of the Atlantic Fleet. She fired her guns for the last time on the night 13-14 March, 1931, and with her last salvo straddled the target.[27] On 30 March the Atlantic Fleet sailed out of Gibraltar for home. At a signal from Sir Michael Hodges, the Commander-in-Chief, Tiger proceeded at full speed from her position at the rear of the battle cruisers, up the line of ships of the Fleet, whose crews cleared lower deck and cheered her, whilst the bands of the Royal Marines played "Heart of Oak" and other tunes. At the head of the line she shaped course for Devonport, 200 miles distant, and sailed into the mist, with her band playing "Auld Lang Syne."[28]

Radio

According to the ambitions of 1909, Tiger had Service Gear Mark II wireless upon completion.[29]

Sometime before 1913, she may have also had a Type 3 Battleship Auxiliary set, but it was to be replaced by a Type 10 Cruiser Auxiliary set.[30]

Armament

Main Battery

This section is sourced from The Sight Manual, 1916 except where otherwise noted.[31]

The 13.5-in Mark V(H) guns were in Mark II mountings able to elevate 20 degrees and depress 5 degrees. In many respects, Tiger's main battery guns were similar to those of the King George V and Iron Duke class dreadnoughts, except her "A" turret was unique in the Royal Navy for having its layer's sighting scopes in the turret face as horizontal periscopes in an effort to avoid blast from super-firing B turret.

The sights were limited to 15 degrees elevation, but the central sights had "20 degree super-elevation strips". Additionally, 6 degree super-elevation prisms would have been provided by 1916. The deflection gearing constant was 61.3, with 1 knot equalling 2.51 arc minutes, calculated as 2500 fps at 5000 yards. Range drums were provided for full charge at 2450 fps, three-quarter charge at 2000 fps, as well as 6-pdr sub-calibre gun and .303-in aiming rifle. Muzzle velocity was corrected by adjustable scale plate between 2560 and 2260 fps. The adjustable temperature scale plate could vary between 40 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and a "C" corrector could alter the ballistic coefficient by +/- 20%.

The periscope holder was inclined 1 degree 37 minutes (which may have effectively been 2.5 degrees for mechanical reasons; it equalled .195 degrees at 10,000 yards).

The side sighting lines were 2 inches below the bore and 83.95 inches abreast for "A" turret, and 43.25 inches above and 39 inches abreast the bore for the other turrets. The central scopes were 56.25 inches above and 42 inches abreast.

O.O.Q. Open Director Sights capable of 20 degrees elevation were fitted by 1916.

The guns were capable of continual aim in all but heavy weather. Gunlayer and turret trainer each used a single hand wheel. Elevation was at 5 degrees per second was achieved by just a single revolution of the hand wheel — a final increase in sprightliness over King George V and Lion classes.[32]

The mount required (or preferred) a low elevation for loading.[33]

Torpedoes

  • Four submerged 21-in torpedo tubes on the broadside

In mid-1920, she was equipped with 21-in Mark IV torpedos.[34]

Fire Control

By mid-1918, it was approved to fit Pattern 3331 Navyphones with loud-sounding bells in the auxiliary machinery compartments of Lion and Orion classes and later where existing navyphones have proven ineffective.[35]

Range Dials

As of 1920, the ship had one Range Dial Type B and one Type C.[36]

Rangefinders

Tiger was completed with seven 9-foot rangefinders: one atop each of its four turrets, one in the fore top, and a pair in armoured hoods atop the gun control tower and torpedo control tower.[37] The T.C.T. rangefinder, a 9-foot Barr and Stroud Rangefinder of unknown model, sat on an M.V. 3 mounting.[38] This simple outfit was to be lost as the benefits of longer base rangefinders became clear.

In her refit from 10 November 1916 to 29 January 1917 at Rosyth,[39] a small rangefinder was added over the C.T., and a medium one to the rear of "X" turret which is curiously unmentioned in the same source's description of 1918 equipment.[40]

Sometime in 1917 or 1918, the T.C.T. rangefinder was upgraded to a 15-foot instrument, with a new armoured hood and racers and training driving the hood directly rather than through the rangefinder mounting. This rangefinder lacked hand-following gear to facilitate in transmission of range cuts, and when it was considered as an addition around 1917, space concerns were causing problems.[41]

By 1918, the desire for torpedo control rangefinders was so keen that an additional 9-foot instrument was ordered.[42]

Her rangefinder equipment during 1918 had come to be:[43]

  • two 25-ft R.F.s in "A" and "Q" turret
  • three 15-ft in "X" turret, G.C.T., T.C.T.
  • one 12-ft in spotting top
  • three 9-ft in "B" turret, in G.C.T. and above compass platform (the last, likely the torpedo control one mentioned above)
  • one 2m F.T. 29[44] H.A. R.F. (in shield over control top, added July 1918)

In 1919, a large rangefinder was added to "A" turret.[45]

In 1922-24, large rangefinders were fitted to "Q" and "X" turrets, replacing the medium one on "X" which escaped mention in 1918.[46]

Evershed Bearing Indicators

The ship was not provided this equipment until 1916 later, as it is not recorded in the pertinent section of Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914.[47] In 1916, it was decided that she was to be so equipped. [48] If and when so fitted, her installation would likely have resembled that of the Queen Mary, [Inference] with transmitting positions at

In 1917, it was approved that capital ships of Dreadnought class and later should have Evershed equipment added to their C.T., able to communicate with either the fore top or the G.C.T.. If there were not enough room in the C.T., a bearing plate with open sights and 6-power binoculars would be added to the C.T..[49]

Also in 1917, it was decided that all directors were to be fitted with receivers and, "as far as possible", ships were to have fore top, G.C.T. and controlling turrets fitted to transmit as well as receive, though this was noted as being impossible in some earlier ships. While it would have been nice to have the C.T. able to transmit bearings to the 6-in guns, it was decided not to do this for reasons of space.[50]

Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter

At some point, Tiger was likely equipped with four Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter Mark IIs:

  • one on each side of the foretop, driven by flexible shafting from the Evershed rack on the director
  • one on each side of the Gun Control Tower employing an electrical F.T.P. system.

As the need for such gear was apparently first identified in early 1916, it seems likely that these installations were effected well after Jutland.[51][Inference]

In 1917, it was decided that these should have mechanical links from the director and pointers indicating the aloft Evershed's bearing.[52]

Gunnery Control

The control arrangements were similar to those in Iron Duke, as follows.[53]

Main Battery Control

Control Positions
  • G.C.T.
  • "B" turret
  • "X" turret
Control Groups

The four 13.5-in turrets were separate groups, each with a local C.O.S. so that it could be connected to

  • T.S.
  • Local control from officer's position within turret

Secondary Battery Control

Control Positions
  • Two primary towers on each side of C.T.
  • Two secondary towers each side further aft
Control Groups

The 6-in broadside guns were organized into two groups, port and starboard. "The guns are worked in pairs, three pairs each side."[54]

Directors

Main Battery

Tiger was fitted with a cam-type, tripod-mounted director in a light aloft tower along with a directing gun in "Q" turret.[55] The battery was divisible into forward ("A" and "B") and aft ("Q" and "Y") groups, and a C.O.S. in the T.S. allowed the following modes of control:[56]

  • All turrets on aloft director
  • All turrets on directing gun
  • Forward group on aloft, aft group on directing gun

At the Battle of Jutland, Tiger suffered some damage in her aft turrets early and appeared to grow mistrustful of her director system, repeatedly "lining up", often after reporting salvoes as "ragged" — taken as indication that receivers were out of step:[57]

  • At 4.05.5, after a ragged salvo, the director took 5 minutes to be lined up correctly as the guns were put into "individual." "X" [sic] remained in individual thereafter, perhaps owing to damage.
  • 4.23.05 the same process (for the same reason) took 3.35 to complete.
  • 4.43 Completed a lining up, seemingly for luck as the enemy had passed out of sight some three and a half minutes prior
  • 5.09.45 Lined up after checking fire, again seemingly as a tic
  • 6.36 Lined up during lull
  • 7.20 Tested director on friendly light cruiser on port bow during lull

In August, 1918, in recognition of shortcomings in the use of directing guns, it was ordered that Tiger should be fitted with a second tripod-type[Inference] director aft, as Lion and Princess Royal had been configured. It seems likely that this work was not completed in the 1918-1919 timeframe, owing to a shortage of sighting equipment.[58]

The turret Elevation Receivers were pattern number H. 1, capable of matching the 20 degree elevation limit of the mountings. The Training Receivers were the single dial type, pattern number 5.[59]

Secondary Battery

The 6-in broadside guns were supported by a pair of pedestal-mounted directors situated forward, one to port and one to starboard. Guns could only be directed by the director on their broadside.[60]

The Elevation Receivers on the guns were 6-in P. VIII Type with electrical tilt correctors, Pattern F.C. 1, capable of 14 degrees elevation. The Small Type Training Receivers were pattern number 19.[61]

Transmitting Stations

Tiger had a single T.S. for her main battery, and a separate one for her secondary battery.[62] It is not clear whether there was ever a Dreyer table of any kind for the secondary T.S.. If one was there, it might have been a Dreyer Turret Control Table.

Dreyer Table

Tiger most likely had a Mark IV Dreyer Table when she completed.[63] It is a certainty that she had this equipment by the Battle of Dogger Bank.[64] It seems likely that this table was updated to Mark IV* standard late during or after 1918[65]. At some point, she likely received Dreyer Turret Control Tables, but it is unknown whether each turret received one, or just the two controlling turrets.[66]

Fire Control Instruments

Vickers F.T.P. Mark III instruments sent range and deflection data to gun sights, while Barr and Stroud (probably Mark II*[Inference]) instruments were used elsewhere.[67]

Gun Ready signals mounted in the T.S. and control positions indicated which which guns were ready.[68]

No Target Visible indicators were installed.[69]

In 1916, it was decided that instruments were to be provided so that the fore top could be equally able to control gunnery as the G.C.T..[70]

Torpedo Control

In 1916, a number of further changes were decided upon:[71]

  • Navyphone communication between C.T. and aft torpedo flat and T.C.T. and fore torpedo flat
  • removal of secondary director hoods
  • "transfer of instruments in the secondary positions" to the C.T. and T.C.T.. I presume that "secondary positions" means the secondary director hoods.
  • it was approved that the ships should have a transmitters in the T.S. and receivers in T.C.T. and C.T. so that gunnery data for range, course and speed could be shared with the torpedo control group.
  • arrangements were to be made that all capital ships with 21-in torpedoes to receive transmitters and receivers so that the T.C.T. could pass the plotted torpedo deflection to the C.T., which could then use a reciprocal set of equipment to send the T.C.T. a deflection to be placed on the sight and range to open fire.

By 1917-1918, a number of common Torpedo Control equipment packages were to be provided to those ships not already sporting them. Those for the 21-in torpedo ships follow.

Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T..[72]

The data instruments to be wired between C.T. and T.C.T. to share range, order and deflection data provided a single deflection transmitter in the T.C.T. so that the results of the torpedo plot to be sent to the single deflection receiver in the C.T. for the information of the Torpedo Control Officer. Conversely, a combined range and deflection transmitter forward allowed the T.C.O. to send back the deflection and intended firing range to the secondary T.C.O. in the T.C.T..[73]

Torpedo Control Evershed[74]

The 21-in torpedo ships were also to be provided with Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and a receiver at the torpedo rangefinder in the T.C.T. in order to ensure that it was obtaining data on the intended target. Limited "slit space" in the C.T. required that the customary binocular-based transmitters be foregone in favour of placing the transmitter on or below the floorboards and to drive it by a shaft from a Torpedo Deflection Sight Mark IV. A control key on the transmitter allowed it to indicate when it was controlling the remote rangefinder or not.[75]

Finally under the 1917-1918 mandate, sufficient instruments were to be provided to permit the Fore Bridge to communicate with the tubes.[76]

In mid-1920, it was decided that Tiger should receive a Renouf Torpedo Tactical Instrument Type B,[77] and a single Torpedo Control Disc Mark III* with a pair of mounting brackets to be installed in her primary torpedo control position.[78]

Alterations

In 1913, Tiger was slated as part of the twelve ship order to receive a director system for her main battery. It was fitted sometime after the war started but prior to May, 1915.[79]

In October, 1914, it was decided that Tiger should receive a Open Director Sight for each of her turrets. They were fitted between April 1916 and June 1917.[80]

In October 1914, the ship was to be given 13 Pattern 1582 Electric Radiators to warm cabins whose stoves could not be used for heating them.[81]

By the end of 1915, she had been equipped with a Torpedo Control Plotting Instrument Mark I in her T.C.T..[82]

In August, 1918, in recognition of shortcomings in the use of directing guns, it was ordered that Tiger should be fitted with a second tripod-type[Inference] director aft, as Lion and Princess Royal had been configured. It seems that supplies of sights were insufficient to meet this goal, however. In November 1918, an alternative source for the equipment was considered, but the changing circumstances put an end to the plan.[83]

Captains

Dates of appointment are provided when known.

See Also

Footnotes

  1. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 35.
  2. Clydebank Battlecruisers. Footers.
  3. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 32.
  4. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 32.
  5. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 32.
  6. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 32.
  7. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 35.
  8. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 35.
  9. Records of Warship Construction during the War. 1914—1918. Volume I. ADM 1/8547/430. p. 78.
  10. "The Launch of H.M.S. Tiger" (News). The Times. Tuesday, 16 December, 1913. Issue 40396, col C, p. 12.
  11. The Navy List. (November, 1914). p. 385a.
  12. The Navy List. (October, 1915). p. 398q.
  13. Roberts. p. 123.
  14. Parkes. p. 557.
  15. Fear God and Dread Nought. III. p. 68.
  16. The National Archives. ADM 137/2134. f. 32.
  17. The National Archives. ADM 137/2134. f. 34.
  18. Fear God and Dread Nought. III. p. 71.
  19. The Navy List. (October, 1915). p. 398q.
  20. Beatty to Hamilton. Letter of 17 February, 1915. Hamilton Papers. National Maritime Museum. HTN/117/A.
  21. The Navy List. (October, 1915). p. 398q.
  22. Diary entry of 7 March, 1915. Duff Papers. National Maritime Museum. DFF 15.
  23. Admiralty. Extract of Gunnery Practices in Grand Fleet, 1914-1918. Battleships and Battle Cruisers. The National Archives. ADM 137/4822
  24. The Navy List. (January, 1921). p. 874.
  25. The Navy List. (April, 1925). p. 275.
  26. "Naval Estimates" (News). The Times. Friday, 6 March, 1931. Issue 45764, col A, p. 9.
  27. "End of Famous Ship" (News). The Times. Tuesday, 31 March, 1931. Issue 45785, col B, p. 11.
  28. "Passing of the Tiger" (News). The Times. Thursday, 2 April, 1931. Issue 45787, col D, p. 8.
  29. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1908. Wireless Appendix, p. 13.
  30. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1913. W/T Appendix, p. 13.
  31. The Sight Manual, 1916. pp. 4, 23-27, 106, 108-109.
  32. Brooks. Dreadnought Gunnery. pp. 45-46.
  33. Noel Papers at National Maritime Museum, Turret Captain Bourne's report. (NOE/5)
  34. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 113.
  35. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 233.
  36. Manual of Gunnery (Volume III) for His Majesty's Fleet, 1920. p. 44.
  37. Roberts. Battlecruisers, p. 92. Technical History Part 23 does not mention the fore top one on its p. 33.
  38. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 175.
  39. Roberts. Battlecruisers. pp. 112-3.
  40. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 219.
  41. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198. (C.I.O. 481/17).
  42. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 177.
  43. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 213.
  44. length and type inferred from reported 6-ft 6-in base length and knowledge of B&S R.F.s.
  45. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 219.
  46. Burt. British Battleships of World War One. p. 220.
  47. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. p. 34.
  48. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.
  49. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  50. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  51. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 25-6.
  52. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  53. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. pp. 7-8.
  54. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. p. 7.
  55. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 142.
  56. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 88.
  57. Admiralty. Jutland Official Despatches pp. 389-393.
  58. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. p. 18.
  59. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 144, 145.
  60. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 91, 143.
  61. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 144, 146.
  62. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. pp. 6-7.
  63. an inference supported by John Brooks in an email dated March 28 2008.
  64. The Beatty Papers, Volume I Appendix V, Gunnery Notes, p. 241, reference thanks to John Brooks.
  65. crossed out from one section and pencilled in in another in Handbook of Capt. F.C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, p. 3.
  66. Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. p. 3.
  67. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. pp. 72.
  68. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. p. 11.
  69. Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. p. 11.
  70. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.
  71. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 145.
  72. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 71.
  73. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (T.O. 29/17.).
  74. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 72.
  75. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 4585/17.) .
  76. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 1644/17, 3706/17.).
  77. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 119.
  78. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 113.
  79. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 9-10.
  80. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. p. 18.
  81. Admiralty Weekly Order No. 512 of 16 Oct, 1914.
  82. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 60.
  83. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. p. 18.
  84. The Navy List. (October, 1915). p. 398q.
  85. Pelly Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/42. f. 483.
  86. The Navy List. (December, 1916). p. 398r.
  87. Bentinck Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 47.
  88. The Navy List. (February, 1919). p. 920.
  89. Duff Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43. f. 390.
  90. The Navy List. (August, 1919). p. 920.
  91. Cameron Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43/409. f. 453.
  92. Cameron Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/43/409. f. 453.
  93. The Navy List. (April, 1925). p. 275.
  94. Betty Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/44. f. 397.
  95. Betty Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/44. f. 397.
  96. Campbell Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/50. f. 210.
  97. Campbell Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/50. f. 210.
  98. Mackie, Colin. ROYAL NAVY WARSHIPS.
  99. Day of month taken from Campbell Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/50. f. 210.
  100. Mackie, Colin. ROYAL NAVY WARSHIPS.
  101. Dewar Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/45. f. 59.
  102. Dewar Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/45. f. 59.
  103. North Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/46. f. 144.
  104. North Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/46. f. 144.
  105. "Naval, Military, and Air Force" (Official Appointments and Notices). The Times. Monday, 30 December, 1929. Issue 45397, col D, p. 3.
  106. Bedford Service Record. The National Archives. ADM 196/46/17. f. 17.

Bibliography

  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1914). Handbook for Fire Control Instruments, 1914. G. 01627/14. C.B. 1030. Copy 1235 at The National Archives. ADM 186/191.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1917). The Director Firing Handbook. O.U. 6125 (late C.B. 1259). Copy No. 322 at The National Archives. ADM 186/227.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1918). Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. C.B. 1456. Copy No. 10 at Admiralty Library, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
  • Roberts, John. The Design and Construction of the Battlecruiser Tiger, a two-part article in Warship, Issues 5 and 6.


Battlecruiser H.M.S. Tiger
<– Lion Class Major Cruisers (UK) Renown Class –>