H.M.S. Furious (1916)

From The Dreadnought Project
Jump to: navigation, search
H.M.S. Furious (1916)
Pendant Number: 65 (Jan 1918)
40 (Apr 1918)[1]
Builder: Armstrong]][2]
Laid down: 8 Jun, 1915[3]
Launched: 15 Aug, 1916[4]
Commissioned: Jul, 1917[5]
Sold: 23 Jan, 1948[6]

Furious was sold for breaking up at Dalmuir and Troon on 23 January, 1948.[7]

Contents

Service

Flight Commander William G. Moore later recorded his experience of the after 18-inch firing:

My cabin was immediately beneath it and the Furious was built in a very light way, certainly not strong enough to carry a gun like that. Every time she fired it was like a snowstorm in my cabin, only instead of snowflakes sheared rivet-heads would come down from the deckhead and partition.[8]

Reduced to reserve at Rosyth on 21 November, 1919.[9]

Captains

Dates of appointment are provided when known.

Machinery

Generators

Three Allen's 200 kw reciprocating steam generators and one 175 kw oil-fired one. It is possible that another 200 kw steam generator was added to the design or soon after completion.[11]

Radio

According to the ambitions of 1909, Furious likely had Service Gear Mark II wireless upon completion.[12]

Armament

The two 18-in guns envisioned to arm the ship were designated as "15-inch B. Coast Defence Guns" during manufacture, for purposes of secrecy. The three that were made (one as a spare) weighed 150 tons and fired a 3,400 pound shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,300 fps.[13]

Furious was to be armed as follows.[14]

Guns

5.5-in Fire Control[15]
5.5-in Fire Control Circuitry[16]

As planned:

  • Two 18-in 40cal Mark I guns, in single mountings fore and aft, to be designated "A" and "Y"
  • Eleven 5.5-in 50cal B.L. Mark I guns on P. I* mountings,[17] five on each broadside and one centre line aft able to fire with either broadside
  • Two 3-in 20cwt Mark I guns on H.A. mountings
  • Four 3-pdr

However, prior to completion, she was converted to a carrier. The forward 18-in turret ("A") was never fitted and a flying-off deck was installed instead.

The 5.5-in guns were to be in three control groups on each broadside, numbered as follows:[18]

  1. Guns 1 and 3 formed group 1
  2. Guns 2 and 4 formed group 2
  3. Gun 6 was in group 3. Gun 5 on the centerline could be in group 3 on either broadside according to a two position COS in the TS

Torpedoes

  • Two Service Bar 21-in submerged broadside tubes forward depressed 2 degrees and bearing 90.[19]

In 1917, it was decided that Furious, Courageous and Glorious should receive greatly augmented above-water torpedo armament. Furious was to receive four Triple Revolving Tubes on her quarter deck (presumably, two on each side), and 2 Fixed Top-Loading Tubes on the main deck. There were to be no reloads for thee tubes, and the submerged tubes were to be reduced from 10 to 7 torpedoes.[20]

By early 1918, even as control arrangements for this considerable broadside torpedo battery was being laid out, it was noted that the thinking was stale, as "extensive modifications now contemplated."[21]

Navyphones

Navyphones[22]

These were noted as being identical with those in the Courageous class.[23] The navyphones were type 3330, 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334, and a couple of 2465s in the TCT.

Switchboards

There was a Main exchange board, a main TS board, and a 5.5-in TS board. The main TS board had a single line to the main exchange, and a single line connected the 5.5-in TS board to the main TS board.

The main TS board had four 3330s for operator use. Within the TS, a pair of 3334s were wired directly to "A" and "Y" turrets to convey ranges and a 3331 wired directly to a 3330 in "Y" working space to convey orders, working off its own 8-cell battery.[24]

Main Battery

Each turret had a 3334 for ranges, and two 3333s, one for orders,and the second being for spotting orders in "A" and for control purposes in "Y". It appears telaupads used with the 3333s in Courageous may have been dispensed with here.[25]

The spotting top had a pair of 3331s for orders and ranges, and the gun director tower aloft a 3331 with telaupads for ranges and another without telaupads for deflection. The G.C.T. had three 3331s for orders, ranges and control, and a single navyphone, likely a 3331 as in Courageous with telaupads appeared in the armoured director tower. The CT had a single 3331 for orders.

By mid-1918, it was approved to fit Pattern 3331 Navyphones with loud-sounding bells in the auxiliary machinery compartments of Lion and Orion classes and later where existing navyphones have proven ineffective.[26]

Secondary Battery

The 5.5-in guns had a system based on Pattern 3331, 3333 and 3334 navyphones similar to the system used in the Renown class. A 20-line exchange switchboard with two operators' phones in the 5.5-in TS was wired to:[27]

  • Main gun control tower (one line)
  • Forward NDS (two lines)
  • After NDS (two lines)
  • Spotting top (two lines)
  • Each gun group (for O.O. group, thence to each gun via telaupads -- six lines in all)
  • Each 5.5-in broadside director (telaupads -- 2 lines in all)
  • Main exchange switchboard (one line)
  • Main TS fire control exchange (one line)
  • 5.5-in TS (two lines)

Gun 5, the centerline gun, had a navyphone and a telaupad.

Torpedo Control

The torpedo control navyphone system was wired in seven direct pairs, with two phones in each of the port and starboard torpedo flats, three in the CT, 1 each in the G.C.T. and spotting top, and six in the T.C.T. with a pair of 2465s working in support. The pairs were as follows:[28]

  • 3331 in port torpedo flat to a 3331 with a connected 2465 in the T.C.T.
  • 3331 in port torpedo flat to a 3331 in the CT
  • 3331 in starboard torpedo flat to a 3331 with a connected 2465 in the T.C.T.
  • 3331 in starboard torpedo flat to a 3331 in the CT
  • 3331 in spotting top to another in the TCT
  • 3331 in CT to another in the TCT
  • 3331 in the G.C.T. to the TCT

The one unpaired phone was a 3331 in the T.C.T. wired to the main TS exchange.

Fire Control

Rangefinders

Evershed Bearing Indicators

Furious had complete support for her main and secondary batteries, as follows.[29]

In 1917, it was approved that capital ships of Dreadnought class and later should have Evershed equipment added to their C.T., able to communicate with either the fore top or the G.C.T.. If there were not enough room in the C.T., a bearing plate with open sights and 6-power binoculars would be added to the C.T.. At the same time, all directors were to be fitted with receivers and, "as far as possible", ships were to have fore top, G.C.T. and controlling turrets fitted to transmit as well as receive, though this was noted as being impossible in some earlier ships.[30]

Main Battery

This was similar to the fittings in the Renown class.[31]

Secondary Battery

5.5-in Evershed System[32]

The Evershed support for the 5.5-in guns directly mimicked their control grouping. The battery had ten transmitting positions, some grouped in the same station on the ship:

  • Forward night defence position port (two transmitters)
  • Forward night defence position starboard (two transmitters)
  • Spotting top (port and starboard)
  • Manoeuvring platform (p&s)
  • After night defence positions (p&s)

Receiving positions:

  • Each 5.5-in gun (11)
  • Both 5.5-in directors (2)
  • Forward night defence position port
  • Forward night defence position starboard
  • Spotting top (p&s)
  • Aft night defence position (p&s)

Guns 1 and 3 were grouped together as were 2 and 4 on both broadsides, as in the control grouping above. Each broadside had its own selector switch, and a COS determined whether the 5.5-in gun on the centre line aft was in the port or starboard broadside.

Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter

In 1919, it was planned to eventually equip her with Mechanical Aid-to-Spotter Mark II*s with Elliott's Bearing Transmitters, one on each side of the foretop, driven by flexible shafting from a gearbox in the roof of the director tower.[33]

These devices were first being supplied from June, 1918.[34][Inference]

In 1917, it was decided that these should have mechanical links from the director and pointers indicating the aloft Evershed's bearing.[35]

Directors

Main Battery

Furious was fitted with two tripod-type directors, one in an armoured tower and one in a light aloft tower. Both were to be fitted with double cam grooves and two rollers.[36]

It was intended to permit the battery to be divisible into a forward group ("A" turret) and an aft group ("Y"), with a C.O.S. in the T.S. for elevating, training and firing circuits[37] offering the following modes:[38]

  • All guns on aloft director
  • All guns on armoured director
  • Forward group on aloft, aft on armoured

The arrangement was to be similar to those in Repulse, but with only a single elevation receiver and a single C.O.S. for firing circuits needed per turret.[39]

Her Elevation Receivers were Pattern H. 10, capable of 30 degrees elevation. She was the only ship with this model. The Training Receivers were the double dial type, pattern number 9.[40]

Secondary Battery

Her 5.5-in guns were supported by a pair of pedestal-mounted directors, one to port and one to starboard, high on her forward superstructure.[41]

The #5 mounting was on the ship's centre line, capable of being assigned to either broadside director's control by means of a special COS. in the TS. The mount's receivers would have to be lined up after switching directors.[42]

The firing circuits and elevation and training were wired directly to the guns on their broadside — the wiring did not pass through the 5.5-in TS. For firing, each gun had a 3-way COS offering

  1. Director firing main to main, aux to aux
  2. Local firing, main to main, aux to aux
  3. Director firing, main to aux, aux to main

Gun 5 on the centerline aft had an additional 2-way C.O.S. so it could receive firing, elevation and training signals from either director.[43]

The Elevation Receivers were 4-in Triple Type with mechanical tilt correction capable of indicating 25 degrees elevation, Pattern H. 14. The Small Type Training Receivers were pattern number 20 on P1 to P4 and S1 to S4, whereas #5 and P6 and S6 had pattern number 21.[44]

Transmitting Stations

Dreyer Table

It appears that Furious had no Dreyer table.[45]

Fire Control Instruments

Fire Control Circuits[46]

Main Battery

Fire control arrangements for the main battery were as follows.[47] The ship was to have range receivers and repeat instruments worked from the Dreyer table in C.T. and T.C.T.. The turrets were each to have two each of Vickers F.T.P. Mark III range and deflection receivers — a set at each sighting position. The T.S. would have four range receivers, with transmitters in "A" and "Y" turrets, spotting top and gun director tower.

Secondary Battery

To support the 5.5-in guns, the spotting top had:[48]

  • a Vickers range clock, a Vickers Mark IV* deflection transmitter and a fire gong push, all wired through a C.O.S. in the T.S. to all groups.
  • Combined range drum and deflection pointer, repeat receivers wired from No. 1 group, port and starboard
  • Captain's cease fire gongs, port and starboard
  • Two portable Vickers range and deflection transmitter with repeat receiver connected to 10-pin plug and a fire gong push with a 2-pin plug, both wired through C.O.S. in T.S. to groups 1 and 2, one for each broadside

The two 5.5-in director towers, port and starboard, had the following wired to No 1 group in TS:[49]

  • Vickers range receiver Mark III,
  • Vickers deflection receiver Mark III
  • Fire gong
  • Captain's cease fire gong

The night defence shelter forward had four portable Vickers range and deflection transmitter with repeat receiver connected to 10-pin plug and a fire gong push with a 2-pin plug, wired through a COS in the TS, one each for No 1 and No 2 groups, port and starboard. Two (?) Captain's cease fire pushes. The NDS aft was similar, but with only two sets of portable transmitter for No 3 group, port and starboard, and no cease fire push.[50]

The 5.5-in TS supported the two pairs of three groups with six sets of:

  • Vickers range transmitter Mark IV*
  • Vickers range transmitter Mark IV*
  • Fire gong push
  • Vickers repeat range receiver Mark III wired off gun side of COS
  • Vickers repeat deflection receiver Mark III wired off gun side of COS

Each group's instruments were wired through COSes (four position COSes for groups 1 and 2, three positions for groups 3, as done for Renown class[51]). There was also a range repeat receiver of the counter drum type wired to the range clock in the spotting top.

The four position COSes for groups 1 and 2 offered:[52]

  1. TS instrument control
  2. Forward night defence shelter
  3. Spotting top
  4. Range clock in spotting top

The three position C.O.S.es for groups 3 offered:[53]

  1. TS instruments control
  2. After night defence shelter
  3. Range clock in spotting top

Each 5.5-in gun had the following wired directly to its group's C.O.S. in the T.S.:

  • Vickers range receiver Mark III
  • Vickers deflection receiver Mark III
  • Fire gong
  • Captain's cease fire gong

The cease fire gong system can be summarised as being separate systems for port and starboard, with pushes in upper CT wired permanently and in the forward NDS via two-pin plugs. The gongs were located one at each gun and director tower, and P/S pairs in the 5.5-in TS and in the spotting top.[54]

Torpedo Control

By 1917-1918, a number of common Torpedo Control equipment packages were to be provided to those ships not already sporting them. Those for the 21-in torpedo ships follow.

Torpedo Control Data between C.T. and T.C.T..[55]

The data instruments to be wired between C.T. and T.C.T. to share range, order and deflection data provided a single deflection transmitter in the T.C.T. so that the results of the torpedo plot to be sent to the single deflection receiver in the C.T. for the information of the Torpedo Control Officer. Conversely, a combined range and deflection transmitter forward allowed the T.C.O. to send back the deflection and intended firing range to the secondary T.C.O. in the T.C.T..[56]

Torpedo Control Evershed[57]

The 21-in torpedo ships were also to be provided with Evershed transmitters in the C.T. and a receiver at the torpedo rangefinder in the T.C.T. in order to ensure that it was obtaining data on the intended target. Limited "slit space" in the C.T. required that the customary binocular-based transmitters be foregone in favour of placing the transmitter on or below the floorboards and to drive it by a shaft from a Torpedo Deflection Sight Mark IV. A control key on the transmitter allowed it to indicate when it was controlling the remote rangefinder or not.[58]

Finally under the 1917-1918 mandate, sufficient instruments were to be provided to permit the Fore Bridge to communicate with the tubes.[59]

In mid-1920, it was envisaged that each ship should receive a single Torpedo Control Disc Mark III* and a pair of mounting brackets to be installed in their primary torpedo control position.[60]

Rangefinders

The rangefinder in the T.C.T. was perhaps an F.T. 24 on an M.Q. 10 mounting. Owing to the date of her introduction, it is not clear whether this would have been a 9-foot or 15-foot instrument, initially.[61][62][63]

Some during or after 1917, the rangefinder was to be upgraded to a 15-foot instrument, probably also F.T. 24, with new armoured hoods and racers and training driving the hood directly rather than through the rangefinder mounting. Previous ships had lacked hand-following gear for their T.C.T. R.F.s as space concerns were causing issues, but initiatives were afoot to try to ensure Furious was so equipped.[64]

In 1918, her aloft 15-foot instrument on an M.Q. 11 mounting was noted as being "wooded over a most important arc from a torpedo control point of view", sparking proposals to add an R.F. on an extension of the torpedo look-out position abaft the mast.[65]

Alterations

In 1916, it was approved that an additional 200 kw steam dynamo be added to the Revenge, Queen Elizabeth, Renown and (possibly) Courageous and Furious classes, as the loss of any of the other four sets could impose an undue burden on the remaining generators, especially in a night action. Prior to the addition, the Furious could generate 775 kw, or 3,400 amperes.[66]

Footnotes

  1. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 37.
  2. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 37.
  3. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 40.
  4. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 37.
  5. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 40.
  6. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 37.
  7. Dittmar; Colledge. British Warships 1914–1919. p. 37.
  8. Moore. Early Bird. p. 97.
  9. The Navy List. (January, 1921). p. 776.
  10. The Navy List. (February, 1919). p. 796.
  11. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.
  12. ARTS 1908 Wireless Appendix, p. 13.
  13. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 4, Part 28. p. 33.
  14. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906–1921. p. 40.
  15. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 74.
  16. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 75.
  17. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 145.
  18. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 148.
  19. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 36.
  20. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 24.
  21. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208.
  22. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 73.
  23. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 147, citing ARTS 1915 pp. 239-240. I see I missed capturing p. 240.
  24. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 73. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915, p. 239.
  25. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 73. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915, p. 239.
  26. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 233.
  27. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 149. See also ARTS 1915 Plate 122.
  28. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 73.
  29. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 149-150.
  30. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  31. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 149.
  32. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 76.
  33. Manual of Gunnery (Volume III) for His Majesty's Fleet, 1920. p. 35, 37.
  34. The Technical History and Index, Vol. 3, Part 23. pp. 25-6.
  35. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 230.
  36. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 142.
  37. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 147.
  38. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 89.
  39. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 147. citing ARTS 1915, p. 234.
  40. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 144-6.
  41. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 91, 143.
  42. The Director Firing Handbook. p. 91.
  43. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. p. 149.
  44. The Director Firing Handbook. pp. 145, 146.
  45. Absent from table in Handbook of Capt. F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables. p. 3.
  46. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. Plate 72.
  47. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 147.
  48. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 148.
  49. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 148.
  50. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 148.
  51. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 148, referencing ARTS 1915 pp. 238-239.
  52. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 238.
  53. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1915. p. 239.
  54. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 149.
  55. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 71.
  56. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (T.O. 29/17.).
  57. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. Plate 72.
  58. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 4585/17.) .
  59. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 208. (C.I.O. 1644/17, 3706/17.).
  60. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1919. p. 113.
  61. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198.
  62. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 175.
  63. Inferences M.Q. 10 and F.T. 24
  64. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1917. p. 198. (C.I.O. 481/17).
  65. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1918. p. 178. (A.L.G. 33725/18).
  66. Annual Report of the Torpedo School, 1916. pp. 120-121.

Bibliography

  • Admiralty, Technical History Section (1919). The Technical History and Index: Fire Control in H.M. Ships. Vol. 3, Part 23. C.B. 1515 (23) now O.U. 6171/14. At The National Archives. ADM 275/19.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1917). The Director Firing Handbook. O.U. 6125 (late C.B. 1259). Copy No. 322 at The National Archives. ADM 186/227.
  • Admiralty, Gunnery Branch (1918). Handbook of Captain F. C. Dreyer's Fire Control Tables, 1918. C.B. 1456. Copy No. 10 at Admiralty Library, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
  • Roberts, John (1997). Battlecruisers. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 186176006X. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557500681. (on Amazon.com and Amazon.co.uk).

See Also


Battlecruiser H.M.S. Furious
<– Courageous Class Major Cruisers (UK) Renown Class –>
Personal tools
Google AdSense