CHAPTER I. 
Page 
Materials use in Gun Construction. Testing. 
1 


CHAPTER II. 

Explosives used with Artillery. 
79 


CHAPTER III. 

Rifling. 
112 


CHAPTER IV. 

Recoil. 
144 


CHAPTER V. 

Principles of Gun Construction 
175 


CHAPTER VI. 

Internal Ballistics 

Part I. 

Section 

1.  Physics of an Explosion. 
210 

" 

2.  Fundamental ThermoChemical Formulae 
223 

" 

3.  Specific Heats of Gases 
232 

" 

4.  Dissociation of Gases at High Temperature 
242 

" 

5.  Calculation of Explision Temperature and Pressure of Cordite 
247 

" 

6.  Comparison between Theory and Experiment 
258 

" 

7.  Heat Contents of Products of Explosion, and Curve of Adiabatic Expansion 
264 


Part II. 

Section 

1.  The Ideal Indicator Diagram and Thermodynamic Efficiency of a Gun using Mark I. Cordite 
273 

" 

2.  Ditto, with M.D. Cordite 
281 

" 

3.  The Variation of the Pressure developed during the Explosion of Cordite in Vessels of constant capacity 
286 

" 

4.  The Variation of the Pressure in a Gun during the burning of a Charge 
293 

" 

5.  The Influence of the Resistance of the Driving Band on Maximum Pressure and Muzzle Velocity 
308 

" 

6.  Instructions for the Calculation of Maximum Pressure and Muzzle Velocity 
314 


CHAPTER VII. 

External Ballistics 

Section 

1.  The Unresisted Motion of a Projectile 
327 

" 

2.  The Flight of a Rifled Projectile 
335 

" 

3.  Resistance of the Air 
351 

" 

4.  Equations for Direct Fire 
378 

" 

5.  Calculation of the Ballistic Tables 
387 

" 

6.  Accuracy of the Ballistic Tables 
391 

" 

7.  The Compilation of Range Tables 
393 

" 

8.  Examples of the Calculation of Trajectories 
417 

" 

9.  The Calculation of Trajectories for AntiAircraft Guns by the Method of Small Arcs 
428 

" 

10.  The Calculation of High Angle Trajectories by Lieut. Littlewood's Method 
441 

" 

11.  Approximate Solutions of the Problem of High Angle Trajectories 
445 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Accuracy. Probability of Fire 
451 


TABLES. 

Table 

I.  Numbers frequently required in Ballistic Calculations 
508 

" 

II.  For converting the Densities of the Charge expressed in Cubic Inches per lb. into Gravimetric Density 
510 

" 

III.  Of Densities and corresponding Cubic Inches per lb. 
522 

" 

IV.  Giving in Foottons the Energy stored up in a Mass of 1 lb., moving at any Velocity between 10 and 3,000 Feet per Second 
523 

" 

V.  Tenuity Correction for Temperature and Pressure of Atmosphere twothirds saturated with Moisture 
538 

" 

VI.  Extract from Glaisher's Hygrometrical Tables 
539 

" 

VII.  theta = integral(sec theta d theta) = 1/2 sec theta tan theta + 1/2 natural log(sec theta + tan theta) 
540 

" 

VIII.  Values of K., Cr., and of Resistance of Unit Shot in lbs. Weight 
541 

" 

IX.  Squares, Cubes, Square Roots and Cube Roots of Numbers up to 100 
544 

" 

X.  M.D. Cordite, Reduction in Diameter in .001 second at 80 degrees F. (Mansell) 
546 

" 

XI.  M.D. Cordite, Reduction in Diameter in .001 second at 60 degrees F. (Mansell) 
547 

" 

XII.  Pressure and Densities, M.D. Cordite, Specific Gravity 1.58 (Mansell), for use with Tables X. and XI. 
547 


LIST OF PLATES . 


To face page 
Plate 
I, 
 Specimens of test pieces 
16 


II. 
 End view of fractures 
18 


III. 
 Bessemer steel plant 
36 


IV. 
 Regenerative gas furnace, elevation 
38 


V. 
 Regenerative gas furnace, plan 
39 


VI. 
 Open hearth steel plant 
40 


VII. 
 Carbon steel heating and cooling curves 
64 


VIII. 
 Nickel steel 
64 


IX. to XIV. 
 Microphotographs of gun steel 
67 to 69 


XV. 
 Diagram illustrating Sir A. Noble's experiments with modified cordite 
95 


XVI. 
Ditto. second series 
96 


XVII. 
Diagram showing fall of velocity with 6inch B.L. Mark VII. gun 
97 


XVIII. 
Type of grooves of rifling 
117 


XIX. 
Rifling of 6inch B.L. Mark XII. 
117 


XX. 
Rifling of 13.5inch B.L. Mark V 
117 


XXI. 
Rifling of 6inch Q.F. gun 
122 


XXII. 
Valve key for 13.5inch B.L. Mark V. mounting 
161 


XXIII. 
Velocity of recoil diagram for 13.5inch B.L. Mark V. 
161 


XXIV. 
Pressure diagrams from recoil and runout cylinders, 13.5inch B.L. Mark V. 
161 


XXV. 
Valve key and pressure space curve, 9.2inch Mark X. 
162 


XXVI. 
Recoil cylinder for 4.7inch mounting 
167 


XXVII. 
Valve key and retarding ram, 4.7inch mounting 
168 


XXVIII. 
Velocimeter curves, 4.7inch gun 
168 


XXIX. 
Pressure diagram from recoil cylinder, 4.7inch mounting 
168 


XXX. 
Powder, initial and firing stresses 
185 


XXXI. 
Graphical construction of gun stresses, Fig. 10 
202 


XXXII. 
Graphical construction of gun stresses, Fig. 11 
202 


XXXIII. 
Graphical construction of gun stresses, Fig. 12 
203 


XXXIV. 
Wirewinding machine 
207 


XXXV. 
Graphical representation of Sir A. Noble's experiments 
259 


XXXVI. 
Theoretical indicator diagrams for explosion of M.D. cordite 
284 


XXXVII. 
Indicator diagrams for explosion of M.D. cordite in 15inch gun. Effect of initial pressure 
312 


XXXVIII. 
Indicator diagrams for explosion of M.D. cordite in 15inch gun 
312 


XXXIX. 
Explosion of M.D. cordite. Comparison between theory and experiment 
312 


XL. 
Curves showing loss of heat contents as a function of temperature 
317 


XLI. 
Shadow photograph of bullet in flight 
339 


XLII. 
Bashforth's chronograph 
354 


XLIII. 
Nomogram for tenuity correction 
370 


